|wch brings these “heroes” down to earth. Review the introduction to especially the bottom of page 888 and page 889, wch ghlights the rhythmic and structural qualities of the Old English line, including alliteration and caesura (also defined in your Terminology Sheet for Beowulf and in class). Consult your print out (also found in your BB folder for|
For the questions below, choose ONE to wch to respond. Beowulf faces three monsters in : Grendel, Grendel’s mother, and the dragon. Wch of the three represents the greatest challenge to Beowulf? Why? In your response, be sure to closely analyze the language of the Heaney translation. Arguably, deals with protagonists and antagonists differently than does Homer’s or Sophocles’s Write an essay in wch you define “protagonist” and “antagonist” as they apply to Oedipus and/or Aclles. It may help to re-read the introduction to both Sophocles and Homer in doing so. Then discuss how contains a changed understanding of “protagonist,” using either Hrothgar, or Beowulf, or any other possible protagonist, as an example. Do the same with “antagonist” using an example from the poem. Throughout class ts quarter, we have discussed how TRANSLATION is an act of INTERPRETATION or ANALYSIS, in wch the translator has to decide what he tnks the original text in moments that are puzzling, or confusing, or ambiguous. Once the translator interprets the text, he then tries to include ts interpretation, somehow, in English. For instance, Lombardo’s decides to focus on the pleasure warriors take in insulting each other, their invective a form of art: “You sack of wine!” In ts way, he emphasizes how Aclles’s and Agamemnon’s arguments are as funny as they are frightening or serious, wch brings these “heroes” down to earth. Review the introduction to especially the bottom of page 888 and page 889, wch ghlights the rhythmic and structural qualities of the Old English line, including alliteration and caesura (also defined in your Terminology Sheet for Beowulf and in class). Consult your print out (also found in your BB folder for ) wch includes five translations of the introduction of Grendel into the epic poem: the Seamus Heaney translation we’ve read for class from the , one by Kevin Crossely-Holland, one by Marijane Osborn, one by Frances B. Grummere, and one by Michael Alexander. The original Anglo-Saxon version of the lines is at the bottom. Then, write a reflective essay that does the following: 1. Define, in your own words, alliteration and caesura, and give one example of each from the Anglo-Saxon lines at the bottom of the handout. Just quote the Anglo-Saxon as it appears on the handout (you don’t have to worry about typing strange accents or letters). For instance, you might write, we find alliteration in the ‘w’ sound in “wlitebeorhtne wang” and “waeter”‘ in the eighth line of the Anglo-Saxon stanza, or, we find caesura between ‘scopes’ and ‘Saegde’ in the fifth line of the Anglo-Saxon stanza 2. Explain, in the Seamus Heany tranlsation, how alliteration and caesura reflect Heaney’s attitude toward Grendel, and s understanding of the Christian scribe’s attitude toward Grendel. For instance, doesHeaney’s translation interpret Grendel as a nightmarish monster or a creature who inspires empathy, or both? For instance, you might write: Heaney uses the repeated ‘h’ sound to connect Grendel’s sense of loneliness and exile from human companionsp with s hearing of the music, in words like “harrowed,” “hear,” “hall,” and “harp.” Since “harrowed” means to “torment” or “terrify,” ts alliteration shows how the hall, in wch the harp plays, represents the human companionsp from wch Grendel is exiled–and so the hall terrifies m, reminds m of s unfortunate birth, and he only strikes to protect mself. Ts qualifies how monstrous Grendel seems, making m more sympathetic. 3. Finally, compare and contrast any other (single) translation on the handout, focusing on the tone toward Grendel. For instance, you might write: As sympathetic as Heaney’s translation is to Grendel, Michael Alexander’s is even more sympathetic. Instead of a “powerful demon” (wch ghlights the sins of the fathers and Grendel’s hellish being) in Heaney, Alexander introduces Grendel as a spirit suffering from pain, “It was with pain that the powerful spirit…” So Alexander’s translation underlines Grendel’s spirit or soul, wch he has in common with humans.