Paper Writing Services in solving the problem II.Critique on Public Bureaucracies i. Discourage creativity, innovation & individuality ii.Carrier bureaucrats are rewarded with organizational power so

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iii.State & local LE agencies must establish formal & informal networks with the organizations in their jurisdictions; these should expand to a cooperative federal system iv.LE agencies need to protect their own information infrastructures; local police use electronic systems in many aspects of their daily duties; disruption could delay emergency responses wch would directly impact public safety Homework

Does the death penalty deter murder?  Discuss. Assigment 2 terrorism Lecture Notes Chapter 14 I.Challenges for Law Enforcement in Organizing Homeland Security Law Enforcement Bureaucracy i.Primary role of LE in fighting terrorism is prevention; every agency involved in homeland security must deal with organization ii.Since 9/11 the federal government has undergone massive reforms & reorganizations; state & local LE have their own managerial structures & agendas; these organizations will not change methods of operation because the federal government has mandated new policies for homeland defense iii.Large organizations are difficult to manage & problems increase rapidly when organizational effectiveness requires cooperation on several levels iv.Terrorism presents exceptional emergency situations but bureaucracies are focused on the routine situations v.Leaders must refocus their attention on the exceptions & recruit lower level managers to assist them in solving the problem II.Critique on Public Bureaucracies i. Discourage creativity, innovation & individuality ii.Carrier bureaucrats are rewarded with organizational power so they look for activities that will provide power instead of solutions to problems iii.Policies & procedures are more important than outcomes iv.Bureaucratic organizations protect themselves when threatened by outside problems v.Centralized bureaucracy increases paperwork III.Contrasting Views on Bureaucracy & Preventing Terrorism i.Large bureaucracy (DHS) with a clear mission will empower the security forces to perform their mission ii.Decentralizing power personalizes services & helps develop links to communities; reduce the involvement of state & local governments in the larger organization (DHS) IV.Bureaucratic Solutions i.When LE agencies & other organizations for preventing terrorism  stay focused on the goal, the process can produce results ii.Leaders at first National Fusion Center Conference (2007) raised the issue of bureaucratic obstacles; member agencies had to develop new methods of coordinating & communicating ideas among themselves; involved setting up small coordination committees among the members to discuss issues; also required communication among leaders; every person in the intelligence effort needs to understand their role in the process;LE officers collect information & forward to analysts at local fusion centers who turn the information into “actionable intelligence”; then distributed to the police  officers, troopers, deputies & agents in the field V.Border Protection & Immigration Policy Disputes i.DHS implemented a policy of fingerprinting & photograpng visitors from some countries wle exempting visitors from close ally countries from the process; many countries criticized the program & Brazil retaliated by imposing the same requirements on American visitors to Brazil ii.Local LE have been asked to assist with border protection by arresting or detaining undocumented immigrants; many oppose the idea because they feel they need the trust & cooperation of immigrants in their communities from a community-policing standpoint iii.Sabastian Mallaby (2007) NY Times Columnist writes: Focus on illegal immigration is not relevant to homeland security; undocumented workers commit fewer crimes than natives; there is no indication that they convert to jihadist ideology; they come here because they want to live here VI.Critical Infrastructure Protection i.Protection of the infrastructure depends upon coordinated efforts  of LE and private organizations that own most of the critical infrastructures ii.LE should be linked to the security forces already associated with infrastructure functions iii.State & local LE agencies must establish formal & informal networks with the organizations in their jurisdictions; these should expand to a cooperative federal system iv.LE agencies need to protect their own information infrastructures; local police use electronic systems in many aspects of their daily duties; disruption could delay emergency responses wch would directly impact public safety Homework Assignment Questions 1.Discuss challenges that public bureaucracies face in problem solving. 2.Discuss the success of the Fusion Centers in overcoming bureaucratic obstacles. 3.Discuss the Border Protection and Immigration Policy Dispute Among Law Enforcement agencies and local governments

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