Paper Writing Services or colors) present in many sub-Saharan African singing voices range from rounded, to guttural, without vibrato, raw, and grainy. Buzzing sounds (buzzing

U.S. in the 1950’s. Reading: Rock and Roll: A Social story, Chapters 1, 2, 3, and 4 Students are encouraged to repeat the listening examples (located in the Listening Links for Lesson 1 folder) as necessary. It would be counterproductive to listen to ts great music only once. You may want to open another tab or two to

Lesson 1 – Africa to Afro-American, Spiritual, Gospel, Blues, Country, Rhythm and Blues, Elvis, and The U.S. in the 1950’s. Reading: Rock and Roll: A Social story, Chapters 1, 2, 3, and 4 Students are encouraged to repeat the listening examples (located in the Listening Links for Lesson 1 folder) as necessary.  It would be counterproductive to listen to ts great music only once. You may want to open another tab or two to access the and the pages to have them available wle you respond to the Lesson #1 Questions. Lesson 1 Questions: 1. The roots of rock and roll are clearly African-American in origin. Much of the indigenous music from West African cultures features musical characteristics that are prevalent in rock and roll. .  The variety of timbres (tone quality or colors) present in many sub-Saharan African singing voices range from rounded, to guttural, without vibrato, raw, and grainy.  Buzzing sounds (buzzing timbres) are prevalent in many of the instruments used in the countries and culture groups of sub-Saharan Africa. and list any of the musical characteristics you happen to hear in ts incredible Pygmy selection. 2. How are they different?  What do they seem to have in common?  List and describe any musical characteristics you notice in these recordings. Shout All Over God’s Heaven – The Fisk Jubilee Singers Roll, Jordan Roll – The Fairfield Four 3.  Click on the NPR (National Public Radio) video below to view, to listen, and to provide a music observational response to these two famous gospel quartets who are actually related to each other – The McCrary Sisters, and The Fairfield Four.  Are there instruments accompanying these singers or is ts performance “a cappella?”  What patterns (rhythmic or song form structure) do you notice in ts performance? 4. On ts recording of the Classic Blues style, Bessie is accompanied by Louis Armstrong on Cornet and Fred Longshaw on the Reed Organ. Describe ts music–what mood is being conveyed here?  As you listen, list and describe any musical characteristics you recognize. 5. As you listen to Traveling Riverside Blues, performed by the great Country or Delta Blues artist Robert Johnson, notice how Robert Johnson typifies the extremely personal approach of the Country/Delta Blues artist as evidenced by s adding to (adding one extra beat), or deleting from (dropping one beat) the 4/4 time of each measure of music.  He does not do ts to all the measures, but rather to just a selected few purely as a means of communicating s art.  Maintaining strict 4/4 time coupled with the twelve-bar harmonic progression of the blues is secondary to the personal expression of s voice and guitar.  Additionally, because ts music is just Robert by mself on guitar and singing, he does not have to worry about keeping a stable 4/4 meter or a steady tempo as he would if he was playing with other musicians in a band. Urban Blues is a post World War II musical development. As African-Americans migrated north, the basic Country/Delta blues style mixed with the jazz rhythm section of piano, bass, and drums. Additionally, the musicians “plugged in,” as amplification of the guitars, vocals, and the harmonica became standard. a) Baby How Long? – Howlin’ Wolf b) I’m In The Mood – John Lee Hooker Notice how Hooker’s vocal timbre serves as a model for, and a direct influence on, Jimi Hendrix. c) Hard Loser – Muddy Waters d) Wake Up Old Lady – Lightnin’ Hopkins e) When My Left Eye Jumps – Buddy Guy f) Sweet Sixteen – B.B. King 7. List some of the characteristics of Blues music that have directly influenced and been co-opted into rock and roll. 8. What are the given name, brand name, and model of the specific electric guitar played by the late great urban blues artist B.B. King? 9. What instruments did Muddy Waters put together to form s Ccago-based Urban Blues band?  What connection is there between ts particular Urban Blues instrumentation and the instruments used in rock and roll music? 10.  Click below to view, listen, and describe what you are viewing and hearing as Jimmie Rodgers (1897-1933) – composer, singer, and “wte bluesman” performs three of s own compositions in ts “short” for Columbia Pictures Studio in 1929. Beginning in the 1920’s with Jimmie Rodgers’ mix of yodeling, folk, blues, and “llbilly” country; on into the 1930’s with singer, songwriter, fiddler, band leader, publisher and Grand Ole Opry icon Roy Acuff; Country Music started to sft from small ensembles of instruments (string bands) and/or singers such as The Carter Family, to that of the “solo singer-with-band” set up. Ts resulted in the post-World War II “honky-tonk” style featuring one of the greatest country performers and composers of all time-Hank Williams (1923-1953). As Billie Holiday did so eloquently in Jazz, Hank also had the ability to communicate s art in a most personal manner. Both of these musical giants transcended the norm by singing with just the right balance of emotion and intensity, delivering it, as if each song were being sung just for you. 11. : a) Your Cheatin’ Heart b) Why Don’t You Love Me c) I’m So Lonesome I Could Cry d) Move It On Over Hank Williams’ songs have been covered by numerous artists representing many styles of music. He is, therefore, another major influence in the development of rock and roll. 12. Prior to labeling it Rhythm and Blues (R&B) in 1949 by Billboard, what was the categorical name used by the music industry for music recorded by African-American (Black) artists? The tremendous significance of rhythm and blues vocalist Big Joe Turner toward the development of rock and roll is indisputable. 13. Listen to and describe what you are hearing in Big Joe Turner’s 1954 rhythm and blues recording of 14. What early rock and roll musician stated, “I felt that if I could take, say, a dixieland tune and drop the first & trd beats, and accentuate the second and fourth, and add a beat that the listeners could clap to as well as dance, ts could be what they were after”? 15. Bill Haley’s musical style featured watered down rhythm and blues lyrics, country and western instrumental playing, and a stage routine designed to “grab” s audience. s “meteoric rise” to popularity, and ts like “Rock Around The Clock” all pointed toward a long career in rock and roll. Yet, as fast as s ascendancy was, “there were no more American ts after 1956.” Provide reasons why ts happened to Bill Haley.  As you write your response, listen to s recording of the song See You Later, Alligator. Coming from the same musical lineage as Bessie Smith, Ma Rainey, and Memps Minnie before her, Willie Mae “Big Mama” Thornton (1926-1984) is yet another example of how the Blues and the entire African-American experience is unquestionably fundamental to the art form we are studying in ts course. Big Mama Thornton was the original artist to record (and claimed she was the composer of the song too) the classic tune called . A legal battle began, and the court sided with composers Lieber and Stoller, thereby keeping Big Mama Thornton from ever receiving any of the sizable royalties the song has accrued through numerous cover versions since her original version was recorded in 1952. 16. Listen, compare, and contrast these two versions of the song Hound Dog.  Wch version do you prefer and why? a) – Willie Mae “Big Mama” Thornton b) – Elvis Presley 17. Elvis Presley from “llbilly ignorance to celebrity,” was a most complex human being. For example: What effect did African-American gospel revival meetings have on the music and performance style of Elvis Presley? 18.  After writing about what influenced Elvis in question 17, now list and comment on the product of those influences–Elvis Presley’s own performance characteristics wch established the “Elvis sound.” a) (Let Me Be Your) Teddy Bear b) I Want You, I Need You, I Love You c) Heartbreak Hotel d) All Shook Up 19. Describe the political and social climate in the United States during the 1950’s. Additionally, list some of the prevailing social attitudes among middle-class wte adults during the 1950’s. How did these “attitudes” effect their response to the sudden presence of rock and roll music in popular culture? 20. Name the “big three” Major Record companies who controlled the prevailing pop music industry in the early 1950’s.

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