Additional Study Questions PSYC 3353 In addition to the questions listed below, review your answers to the previous questions for quiz 1 and be prepared

Additional Study Questions PSYC 3353 In addition to the questions listed below, review your answers to the previous questions for quiz 1 and be prepared to identify the brain structures in study guide 2. Chapter 3. 1. Describe the sequence of chemical events that occur during synaptic neurotransmission. Where are smaller neurotransmitters synthesized? Larger neurotransmitters (peptides)? Which ion is required for the release of neurotransmitter from the terminals and into the synaptic cleft? 2. What is an amino acid? What is a peptide? 3. What is the role of calcium in chemical communication between neurons? 4. What are ionotropic effects? Metabotropic effects? Compare and contrast these effects. For example, do both effects involve neurotransmitters and receptors? 5. Define the following terms: reuptake, transporters, autoreceptors, agonist, antagonist, affinity, and efficacy. 6. There is a neural system in the brain that is associated with motivated behavior and reward. It has been demonstrated that rats will work to stimulate this brain circuit, and this brain area is stimulated by sexual excitement and other rewarding behaviors. What is the primary neurotransmitter involved in motivation and reward? Where in the brain is this neurotransmitter released (hint: drugs of abuse also stimulate release of the neurotransmitter in this brain area? 7. What are stimulant drugs? Do they activate the circuit described above directly or indirectly? How do amphetamine and cocaine stimulate the synapse? Chapter 4. 1. Define the following terms: dorsal, ventral, anterior, posterior, medial, lateral, tract, nerve, nucleus (structure in the nervous system), ganglion, gyrus, sulcus, fissure, central nervous system, peripheral nervous system, somatic nervous system, autonomic nervous system, sympathetic nervous system, parasympathetic nervous system, gray matter, white matter, ablation, and lesion 2. Describe the Bell-Magendie law. How does sensory information reach the brain via the spinal cord? How does a motor response leave the spinal cord? 3. Where are the cell bodies of the sensory neurons that innervate peripheral muscles and skin located? Where are the cell bodies of the motor neurons that innervate muscles and glands located? 4. What are the three major divisions of the brain? 5. Which structures constitute the brainstem? 6. Which structures constitute the forebrain? Midbrain? Hindbrain? 7. Which area of brain is considered an enlarged extension of the spinal cord? 8. What is the limbic system? This system is involved in the regulation of which behaviors? Which structures make up this system? 9. What is the hypothalamus? Where is it located in the brain? This structure in involved in the regulation of which behaviors? Additional Study Questions for Exam 1 PSB 2000 2 10. What is the thalamus? Where is it located in the brain? What kind of information is processed by the thalamus? Where does this information come from? After processing this information, where is it sent? 11. What is the basal ganglia? Damage to this structure is associated with which diseases? 12. What is the hippocampus? What is a major function of this structure? 13. What type of information is carried by the 1st cranial nerve? 2nd cranial nerve? 10th (vagus) nerve? The 1st and 2nd cranial nerves are similar in what respect? What’s different about the 10th cranial nerve? 14. What are ventricles? What is the central canal? What is cerebrospinal fluid? 15. Describe the organization of the cerebral cortex. What are laminae? Columns? How are these different? 16. Describe the four lobes of the human cerebral cortex? Where is each located on the surface of the brain? What type of information is processed by each lobe? 17. What is the central sulcus? Precentral gyrus? Postcentral gyrus? Where is each located and what type of information is processed by each area? 18. What is the prefrontal cortex? Where is this area located on the surface of the brain? Describe some of the functions of the prefrontal cortex. 19. Define the following terms: anterior commissure, corpus callosum, delayedresponse task, prefrontal lobotomy, ablation, lesion, gene-knock approach. 20. What is computerized axial tomography (CAT)? Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)? Researchers use CAT and MRI to determine what? 21. What is an electroencephalograph (EEG)? Evoked potential? Positron-emission tomography (PET)? Researchers use EEG and PET to determine what? Chapter 5. 1. Describe the sequence of events that occurs during the growth and differentiation of the vertebrate brain? What is proliferation? Migration? Differentiation? Myelination? Synaptogenesis? 2. Describe the effects of experience on neuron structure. (hint: rats in an enriched environment, people with extensive education, and so on) 3. How is an axon able to find and establish contact with its correct target (i.e., tissue or another neuron)? What does Roger W. Sperry’s experiment demonstrate regarding axonal connections? 4. What are neurotrophins? Nerve growth factor? 5. What is apoptosis? Review Figure 5.6 on page 130; what happens to motor neurons in the spinal cord as gestational age increases? How is apoptosis related to brain maturation? Is this phenomenon a normal part of brain development? 6. Why is the average blind person able to outperform the average sighted person on many verbal tasks? (note: describe differences in brain activity between the two groups) 7. The brain reorganizes in response to experience or practice. Sometimes this reorganization improves performance. But can it also create problems? (hint: what happens to some musicians who play the piano or some other instrument many hours a day for years?) Additional Study Questions for Exam 1 PSB 2000 3 8. Define the following terms: closed head injury, stem cells, neural Darwinism, nerve growth factor, apoptosis, neurotrophin, fetal alcohol syndrome, stroke, ischemia, hemorrhage, diaschisis, penumbra, and edema? 9. Can a damaged cell body be replaced in the brain? Can a damaged axon grow back? 10. What is collateral sprouting? When does it occur (hint: it occurs in response to something)? Is this phenomenon always beneficial? Can it be harmful? 11. What is denervation supersensitivity? Disuse supersensitivity? 12. The developing brain is vulnerable to various types of insults. For example, prenatal exposure to alcohol can have devastating effects on a child’s behavior and appearance. Describe other conditions that can affect the developing brain. What happens if a pregnant mother uses cocaine? What are some risk factors for children of mothers who smoked during pregnancy? 13. Describe the phantom limb experience. What neural mechanism is responsible for the phantom limb experience (hint: reorganization in the cortex)?

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