ideas of justice? Describe the change. Part VII Reading Summaries -The U.S. Constitution, Article I, Section 2 “The “‘Three-Fifths Compromise'” The Three-Fifths Compromise was a

ideas of justice? Describe the change. Part VII Reading Summaries -The U.S. Constitution, Article I, Section 2 “The “‘Three-Fifths Compromise'” The Three-Fifths Compromise was a compromise between the South, which held that enslaved people should be counted in determining representation in the House but that they should not be counted in determining a state’s share of the direct tax burden, and the North, which held the exact opposite viewpoint. A compromise was reached, whereby enslaved people were to be each counted as three-fifths of a person in apportionment of representation and indirect taxes among the states. -Elizabeth Cady Stanton “Declaration of Sentiments and Resolutions, Seneca Falls Convention, 1848” The Declaration of Sentiments, adopted in July 1848 at Seneca Falls, New York, at the first women’s rights convention, is the most famous document in the history of feminism. Like its model, the Declaration of Independence, it contains a bill of particulars. After the passage of the resolutions (all unanimously passed, except the one calling for women’s suffrage, which did pass nevertheless), this document inaugurated the women’s suffrage movement in the United States. -W. E. B. Du Bois “The Black Codes” This seminal essay by Du Bois, a preeminent African American historian, sociologist, human rights activist, and one of the founders of the NAACP, outlines the legal codes that were enacted in the South following the Thirteenth Amendment, which freed enslaved people. These Black Codes were laws intended to blunt the power of the amendment, in order to “make Negroes slaves in everything but name.” -The Chinese Exclusion Act, 1882 The Chinese Exclusion Act suspended all migration of Chinese skilled and unskilled workers, as well as Chinese people employed in mining, to the United States. This excerpt from the act details the restrictions of the act and the consequences for violating, or participating in violating, the guidelines. -U.S. v. Bhagat Singh Thind, 1923 In this case, Thind, an Indian immigrant, argued that he was racially Caucasian and thus eligible for citizenship. The ruling stated that it is the common understanding of “white persons,” and not a scientific racial classification of Caucasian that determines eligibility for citizenship. As a matter of familiar observation, Thind appeared to be racially different; as such, his appeal was rejected. -Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, 1954 This case made segregation in public schools illegal, finding that “such segregation is a denial of the equal protection of the laws.” -Roe v. Wade, 1973 This law legalized a woman’s right to terminate her pregnancy by abortion. The law was based on the right to privacy grounded in the Ninth and Fourteenth amendments to the Constitution. -The Equal Rights Amendment (Defeated) The Equal Rights Amendment passed Congress in 1972, but it was not ratified by the requisite number of states to become part of the Constitution. -Obergefell v. Hodges, 2015 This 2015 Supreme Court ruling legalized same-sex marriage in the United States. The decision states that the right to marry is guaranteed to same-sex couples through the Fourteenth Amendment’s Due Process Clause and its Equal Protection Clause. 2- what does the author mean when she stated “Violence is often the single most evident marker of manhood.”? 3- what does this part means “The language of the Declaration of Independence is equally conclusive: It begins by declaring that, “when in the course of human events it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another, and to assume among the powers of the earth the separate and equal station to which the laws of nature and nature’s God entitle them, a decent respect for the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation.” 4- explain what does this part means ” In the construction of ascribed social statuses, physiological differences such as sex, stage of development, color of skin, and size are crude markers. They are not the source of the social statuses of gender, age grade, and race. Social, The Social Construction of Difference: Race, Class, Gender, and Sexuality carefully constructed through prescribed processes of teaching, learning, emulation, and enforcement 5- explain what does this part means” For most of the nation’s history, Asian Americans have been treated primarily as constructive blacks. Asian Americans for decades endured many of the same disabilities of racial subordination as African Americans-racial violence, segregation, unequal access to public institutions, and discrimination in housing, employment, and education.” 6- explain what does this part means”Indeed, Americans are much more comfortable recognizing the power of individual initiative than recognizing the power of social class. Studies show that Americans generally believe that responsibility for their accomplishments rests on their individual efforts” 7-explain what does this part means”More pain could be inflicted on Blacks than on Whites.9 Whites alone could bear arms; Whites alone had the right of self-defense. White servants could own livestock; Africans couldn’t. It became illegal to whip naked Whites. Whites but not Africans had to be given their freedom dues at the end of their indenture. Whites were given the right to beat any Blacks, even those they didn’t own, for failing to show proper respect”

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