Module 4: Cognitive Explanations of Learning Metacognition: • John Flavell + Lev Vygotsky + Jean Piaget • Metacognition is the monitoring and control of thought,

Module 4: Cognitive Explanations of Learning Metacognition: • John Flavell + Lev Vygotsky + Jean Piaget • Metacognition is the monitoring and control of thought, thinking about cognition, self reflection • Metacognition is the process of being self-aware of one’s own personal learning strengths and weaknesses; strategy knowledge and use; and a capacity for self-reflection Strategies to Improve Metacognitive Awareness: – Discuss with the class the importance of metacognitive knowledge – Model your own metacognitive processes for students – Ensure there is time for group discussion and reflection about learning activities – Make visible the cognitive strategies students are using Improve regulation of cognition by checking planning, monitoring and evaluating strategy use Examples of Reflective Questions: – What is your goal? What strategies are you using? – Who can you ask for ? – How often are you studying? – Do you think your strategies are working? – Do you need to make changes to your strategies? – Did you achieve your goal? – What strategies worked? – What will you do differently next time? Benefits and Limitations of Metacognition; – Self-awareness – More efficient use of study time by using strategies – Taking control of learning Not always easy to identify learning strategies – Hard to be honest about strategies Introspection can lead to doubt Module 5: The Constructivist Classroom Constructivism: • John Dewey + Jean Piaget + Jerome Bruner + Benjamin Bloom Key Principles of Constructivism; – Learners are active participants in their own learning – the leam by doing – Learners are self-regulated – they plan, monitor and evaluate (metacognition) – Social interaction is necessary for learning – Individuals are encouraged to make sense of information for themselves Classroom Strategies of Constructivism; – Discovery learning – problem based learning – Problem solving – Open-ended questions Reflection; Learning journal – Questioning – Collaborative learning – Small-group learning – Social learning – online networking Peer teaching – Use of experts e.g. parents or community members – Use of Bloom’s taxonomy to structure a series of questions that each student can apply based on their capacity – Cultural experiences – excursions to art galleries, museums, national parks Benefits and Limitations of Constructivism; – Active discovery promotes curiosity – Active rather than passive learning Interaction with experts – Encouraged use of available technology – Requires considerable time – Students may not have group work skills – Lack of student motivation – Students may leam incorrectly Module 6: Contemporary Teaching Strategies Collaborative Inquiry and Problem Based Learning: • John Chaffee + John Dewey + Socrates • Scaffolds (tools, resources, and processes provided by the teacher) • Before learning – during learning – after learning • Based around experiencing and solving real world problems Characteristics of Collaborative Inquiry and Problem Based Learning: – Posing questions and investigating these using data/information – Freedom for groups of students to define their own inquiry or problem solving process – Development of ideas within a community of learners – Student-centred activities in order to solve a problem – Discovery or exploration of ideas Elements of the Process of Inquiry/Problem Based Learning; – Asking questions – Planning – Investigation – Analysis of information – Model creation of the solution/findings – Conclusion – Reflection Scaffold Examples: – providing some direct instruction at the start of the project – s orient students to the topic and provides an overview of the importance of the topic – provide a series of steps that the students have to follow, based on relevant content – take students on an excursion – ask the local experts to speak to class and respond to questions – provide regular opportunities in class to discuss the strategies students are using, and their perspective on how effective these strategies were Benefits and Limitations of Inquiry/Problem Based Learning: – Teaches critical thinking skills – Focuses on strategies to overcome problems – Improve students attitudes towards learning – Not all students comfortable with group work – Relies on introspection and self-report – Regular feedback can be difficult Module 7: Personalised Learning and Data Driven Teaching • David Miliband • select age-equivalent content that is meaningful and respects students’ individual needs, strengths, language proficiencies and interests • provide stimulating learning experiences that challenge, extend and develop all students • use their knowledge of students’ individual needs, strengths and interests to ensure access to the teaching and learning program. • Emphasises student individuality • Meaningful connection between student and curriculum • Data driven teaching uses individual data from student assessment to tailor make future assessments and activities based on current ability level Benefits and Limitations of Personalised Learning: Many ways for students to present work – Students have a choice in how they learn and what materials they choose to leam with – Encourages autonomy, self awareness, and responsibility – Some students are indecisive and procrastinate – Finance restraints

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