Name(s): HW 2 (Chapters 5, 6 & the films & seminar on pandemics/Covid-19) due at 11:59 PM on Feb 25, 2021 (Friday) Total points =

Name(s):
HW 2 (Chapters 5, 6 & the films & seminar on pandemics/Covid-19) due at 11:59 PM on Feb
25, 2021 (Friday)
Total points = 100; show your work as much as you can to receive partial credit when needed.
You may work alone or in a group for this assignment. If this is a group assignment, turn in a
single assignment with all the names included.
Chapters 5 and 6 (75 points)
1. The
of a screening test is defined as the proportion of non-diseased
people who are correctly identified as "negative" by a screening test. (5 points)
a. Specificity
b. Sensitivity
C. Negative Predictive Value
d. Positive Predictive Value
2. Within the context of screening tests, people who do not have the disease and are
erroneously called "positive" by a test are called: (5 points)
a. False positives
b. True negatives
c. True positives
d. False negatives
3. A prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test is a quick screening test for prostate cancer. A
researcher wants to evaluate it using two groups. Group A consists of 131 men who had
biopsy-proven adenocarcinoma of the prostate while group B consists of 1,310 age- and
race-matched men all of whom showed no cancer at biopsy. The results of the PSA
screening test in each group is shown in the table:
True Numbers
Positive
Negative
Positive
110
786
PSA Test Results
Negative
21
524
How many people were given a false negative result? (5 points)
a. 545
b. 21
c. 110
d. 524 4. Use the table below to answer the following questions (10 points; 2.5 points each
question):
Reality
Disease
No Disease
Positive
5
2
Test
Negative
15
18
Test
20
20
a. is the sensitivity of this diagnostic test?
b. is the specificity of this diagnostic test?
c. is the positive predictive value of this diagnostic test?
d. is the negative predictive value of this diagnostic test?
5. Suppose the test in Question 4 is the first test in a sequential test. After this first test is
conducted, a second test is conducted on those tested positive in the first test. The
second test has 90% sensitivity and 90% specificity. is the net sensitivity and net
specificity of the sequential testing (10 points; 5 points each)?
Diseased
Not Diseased
Positive
Negative
5
2
7 6. Suppose the test in Question 4 is test 1 in a simultaneous test. Test 2 has sensitivity 90%
and specificity 90%. is the net sensitivity and net specificity of the simultaneous
testing (10 points; 5 points each)?
Reality
Disease
No Disease
Positive test
Negative test
20
20
40
Questions 7-9 are based on the following information:
Two raters were asked to classify 200 x-rays as positive or negative independently. The
comparison of their classification is shown in the following table (10 points):
Rater A
Rater B
Positive
Negative
Total
Positive
80
40
120
Negative
20
60
80
Total
100
100
200
7. The simple, overall percent agreement between the two people out of the total is (2
points):
a. 120/200 or 60%
b. 80/200 or 40%
c. 140/200 or 70%
d. 60/200 or 30%
8. The percent agreement by chance alone is (4 points):
a. 120/200 or 60%
b. 80/200 or 40%
c. 60/200 or 30%
d. 100/200 or 50% 9. The value of kappa is (4 points):
a. 20/50 or 0.40
b. 10/50 or 0.20
c. 20/40 or 0.50
d. 10/40 or 0.25
10. How does one interpret the kappa statistic (i.e., excellent vs. good vs. poor agreement)? (5
points)
11. One hundred eighty patients were treated for disease X from 1991 to 1993, and their
progress was followed to 1994. The treatment results are given in the table. No patients
were lost to follow-up.
NO. OF PATIENTS ALIVE
ON EACH ANNIVERSARY
Year of Treatment
No. of Patients Treated
1st
2nd
3rd
1991
75
60
56
48
1992
63
55
31
1993
42
37
Total
180
152
87
48
is the probability of surviving for all 3 years (5 points)?
12. Before reporting the results of a survival analysis, investigators compared baseline
characteristics of 38 people who withdrew from the study before its end to those who had
complete follow-up. This was done for which of the following reasons? (5 points) a. To test whether randomization was successful
b. To check for changes in treatment
c. To check whether those remaining in the study represent the total study
presentation
d. To check whether the survival estimate of those remaining in the study is the same
as the general population
e. To check that the survival estimate for those lost to follow-up is the same as the
general population
13. Based on the following Kaplan-Meier curve, what is the probability of surviving at the end of
the study? is the median survival time? (5 points; 2.5 points each):
Patient 1
Patient 2
Patient 3-
Patient 4-
Patient 5-
Lost to
follow-up
Patient 6
DIED
24
MONTHS SINCE ENROLLMENT Films & Seminar Questions on Pandemics & Covid-19 (25 points)
Questions 14-17 are based on the film, "We Heard the Bells-The Influenza of 1918" (10 points
total)
14. During seasonal influenza epidemics in the United States, there are certain groups that are
at higher risk of complications. Name three such groups. (3 points)
15. True or false: Influenza viruses have not caused a pandemic since 1918. (2 points)
a. True
b. False
16. True or false: The 1918 flu had as its most unique feature the fact that it had a high
propensity to kill young adults ages 15-40. (2 points)
a. True
b. False
17. Describe several things we learned from the 1918 influenza pandemic that still have
relevance today. ( 3 pts)
Questions 18-20 are based on the film, "Coronavirus: Race Against the Pandemic" (7 points
total)
18. True or false: the process of a virus jumping from one species to another is not a simple
one. (2 points)
a. True
b. False
19. Describe several reasons the SARS-CoV-2 virus was so much more deadly than the SARS
virus (another coronavirus) years earlier. (3 points)
20. In the conclusion of the film, Dr. Heymann says it’s wrong to think that medical science can
stop an outbreak. does he argue can stop an outbreak? (2 points) Questions 21-22 are based on the seminar recording, "Structural Racism & the Covid-19
Pandemic" (8 points)
21. True or false: There is some evidence that genetics is the basis for the racial health
disparities we’ve seen in Covid-19. (2 points)
a. True
b. False
22. is meant by "structural racism"? (3 points)
23. Describe several ways structural racism has impacted the effects of Covid-19 on
communities of color. (3 points)

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